Welche Zeitform sollte man in Englisch bei Analysen/Zusammenfassungen benutzen und welche Particpleform (present/past/perfekt)?

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How to Ana lyse a Fictional Text

1. What is a fictional text?

Fictional texts differ from non-fictional ones in that they were not
primarily intended to convey information. Novels, short stories, plays,
and poems were written for artistic purposes in order to appeal to the
interested reader´s imagination.

2. How do you approach a fictional text (order may depend on the individual case)?

a. Read the text carefully at least twice.

b. Write down your first impressions of the text which can be a very
general idea, an important phrase, a characteristic feature of style, or
the like.

c. Look up unknown vocabulary. Concentrate only on key words that block the understanding of the text.

d. Reread the excerpt and underline important passages, esp. those relevant for the tasks in a test paper.

e. Structure your text according to sense units: How can the text be subdivided?

f. Ask yourself the following questions: What literary genre does the text in question belong to: poetry-drama-fiction?

g. What is the story about? What is its main theme? What is its
central idea / meaning / message? Can you state it in one single

h. What formal elements of the text bring about the central meaning best?

i. Start out with any of the characteristic formal elements which you
found relevant for the understanding of the excerpt and ana lyse it.

The main question is: How does the author use this formal element so
effectively that it can carry meaning and contribute to the overall

j. Analyse other formal elements of your choice and check whether
your findings are true with respect to your initial ideas (points b and

k. Perhaps you will have to reformulate your central meaning after
the ana lyses of various aspects of the text. If necessary, do so
because it will bring you closer to the author´s intention.

l. On your way through the whole process of interpretation, take the
following formal elements into account: action / plot; character,
setting, atmosphere, point of view, tone, structure, choice of words,
imagery and other stylistic devices

Remember that if a story is well-constructed, ana lyses of these
elements will ultimately lead you to the core of the text in question
because any element contributes a considerable bit to its overall

3. A few ideas on formal elements and what they stand for

Action: What actually happens in the story? Situation? Developments?

Plot: How is the action in the story organised?

Character: Who is the protagonist? How is he characterised? Other characters?

Setting: What is the place of the action presented? The time? The social circumstances?

Atmosphere: What feelings does the narrative convey to the reader
because of the description of setting, the choice of words, and the

Point of view: Who tells the story (an observer, the protagonist, …)?
From what perspective is the story told (first person narration, third
person narration, …)?

Tone: Is the story told in a serious, humorous, ironic, sentimental, or … way?

Structure: Are there different parts in the text? Any subdivisions?
How does the action start? What conveys the text coherence? Is there an
open ending / surprise ending?

Choice of words: What register does the author employ to tell his story?

Imagery: Does the author decorate his / her writing with comparisons, metaphors, symbols, personifications, …?

4. Additional questions

After a careful ana lysis of the text in question you might want to ask yourself a couple of very personal questions:

• Is the story convincing?

• Can I identify with any of the characters, their motives, their actions?

• Can I understand their reactions?

• Do I like the story or not? Can I give any reasons for my decision?

• Is the material presented realistic or unrealistic?

If you are given tasks in a term paper or a classroom test, make sure
that you stick to the rules of good and convincing writing in an essay.
Giving proof of your findings is also essential. In preparation you
should acquaint yourself with the techniques of quoting correctly from
the original text (see “How to quote …”). Keep enjoying reading and
writing about your ideas, and your teacher will enjoy reading your

© J. Menrath / 2003

Useful phrases for ana_ysing texts findest du hier:

- loske.org/html/school/english/ana_ysis.pdf

- abiturerfolg.de/howtowriteatextana_ysis_elements.html

Sollte es um eine andere Textart gehen, gib bei Google - how to ana lyse … ein und folge den Links.

Das l in ana_yse wird leider nicht akzeptiert, deshalb der Unterstrich an dieser Stelle


Summaries werden in der Regel im Present geschrieben. Handlungen aus der Vergangenheit können aber durchaus auch im Past Simple und Present Perfect stehen.

- The summary is usually written in the present tense.

- But past events may be reported in the past, future events may be reported in the future.

- Statements or questions which were made in the past may be reported in the past tense or the past perfect.

- Statements and questions which were made in the past but concern the future may be reported in the conditional

(Quelle: kfmaas.de/summary0.html)

Für die Anwendung der anderen Zeiten im Summary gelten dieselben Regeln und Signalwörter wie in anderen Texten.

Die Zusammenfassung eines Sachtextes, der sich mit Geschichte befasst, steht im Simple Past, denn es handelt sich um in der Vergangenheit abgeschlossene Handlungen.

In eine Summary gehören nicht:

- Progressive / Continuous Tense

- Wörtliche Rede

- Zitate aus dem Originaltext

- Eigene Meinung, Gedanken und Kommentare

- Stellungnahme

- Schlusssatz

- Erzählerische Elemente, z.B. suddenly, unfortunately, at long last …

Zur Länge gibt es keine Vorgaben, man sagt über den Daumen gepeilt 1/5 des Originaltextes.

Tipps und Wendungen zu englischen Summaries findest du unter folgendem Link:ego4u.de/de/cram-up/writing/summary

Beispiele und Übungen findest du, wenn du bei Google - sample summaries oder exercises English summary eingibst.


Present Participle und Past Participle werden verwendet

- in den Zeiten und

- als Adjektive

und im Englischen häufig auch

- um Sätze zu verkürzen.

Das Present Participle

ist die ing-Form des Verbs,

es wird verwendet:

- in der Verlaufsform der Zeiten (z.B. Present Progressive / Continuous) – I am writing.

- im Gerund – He is afraid of flying.

- nach Verben der Ruhe und Bewegung, um diese näher zu beschreiben: come, go, sit, etc.

Beispiel: The girl sat crying on the sofa.

- nach Verben der Sinneswahrnehmung,

um einen Verlauf der Handlung bzw. eine Wertung (Bewunderung, Missbilligung) deutlich zu machen.

feel, find, hear, listen to, notice, see, smell, watch, etc.

Beispiel: Did you see him leaving?

- als Adjektiv - zur Beschreibung von Personen, Gegenständen, und Vorgängen.

- Beispiel: The book was boring. She was a loving mother.

- um Aktiv-Sätze zu verbinden bzw. verkürzen, wenn zwei Sätze bzw. Satzteile das gleiche Subjekt haben.

- Beispiel: She sat on the sofa and cried. – She sat on the sofa crying.

- Anstelle von Relativsätzen

- Beispiel: Most children who live in slums are ill. (Relativsatz) Most children living in slums are ill. (Partizipialkonstruktion)

- Anstelle von adverbialen Nebensätzen

- Beispiel: When we passed the church, we saw a wedding
carriage. (adverbialer Nebensatz) Passing the church, we saw a wedding
carriage. (Partizipialkonstruktion)

Das Past Participle

ist die 3. Verbform in den Listen der unregelmäßigen Verben.

Bei regelmäßigen Verben dagegen wird das Past Participle durch Anhängen von ed ans Verb gebildet.

Das Past Participle wird benutzt

- für Perfekt-Zeiten (z.B. Present Perfect Simple) – He has left. She has painted.

- für Passiv-Form: The picture was taken. The ceiling was painted.

- als Adjektiv: I was bored to death. zur Beschreibung von Gefühlen.

- um Passiv-Sätze zu verbinden bzw. verkürzen, wenn zwei Sätze bzw. Satzteile das gleiche Subjekt haben: The boy was given an apple. He stopped crying. ----> Given an apple, the boy stopped crying.

- Anstelle von Relativsätzen: We read the book, which was recommended. (Relativsatz) We read the recommended book. (Partizipialkonstruktion)

Das Perfect Participle

ist having + Past Participle (regelmäßig Verb + ed; unregelm. 3. Verbform)

Es wird verwendet,

um Sätze zu verbinden und/oder zu verkürzen

wenn zwei Sätze bzw. Satzteile das gleiche Subjekt haben

eine Handlung (die im Perfect Participle) bereits abgeschlossen ist, wenn die nächste Handlung eintritt.


He took the children to school and went on to the office. – Having taken the children to school, he went on to the office.

eine Handlung über einen längeren Zeitraum bis zu einer anderen Handlung stattfindet


They had been living there for such a long time that they didn't want
to move to another town. – Having lived there for such a long time,
they didn't want to move to another town.

Anstelle von Relativsätzen: After she had read his letter,
she was very happy. (Relativsatz) Having read his letter, she was very
happy. (Partizipialkonstruktion)

Die Verwendung ist sowohl im Aktiv als auch im Passiv möglich.

Aktiv: having + Past Participle (Having watered the flowers, he cut the grass.)

Passiv: having been + Past Participle (Having been watered, the flowers looked lovely.)

Grammatik und Übungen hierzu findest du auch im Internet, z.B. bei

- ego4u.de/de/cram-up/grammar/participles

- doktor-hesse.info/PDFs_Grammatik/participles_09_explanation.pdf usw. (Leerschritte vor und hinter den Unterstrichen löschen.)

:-) AstridDerPu

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Immer present
Bei vorzeitigkeit (also vergangenheut im ausgangstext) das present perfect

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Zukunft ist vergangenheit
Hilft immer

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