Python Befehl?

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python -m <modulname>

Startet python mit dem angegebenen Modul als "Hauptmodul".

Wenn du z.B. folgendes Python-Skript unter foo.py im Modul-Verzeichnis von python hast

if __name__ == '__main__':
print 'Ich wurde als Hauptmodul gestartet.'
else:
print 'Ich wurde von einem anderen Skript importiert.'

und dann

python -m foo

ausführst, gibts diese Ausgabe:

Ich wurde als Hauptmodul gestartet.

Führst du hingegen das aus:

python
import foo

dann erhälst du diese Ausgabe:

Ich wurde von einem anderen Skript importiert.

Das kann z.B. verwendet werden, wenn du ein Python-"Programm" schreibst, das mit setuptools installiert wird, dann hast du einmal die einzelnen Module aus denen dein "Programm" besteht und dann noch ein "Startskript", das einfach nur "python -m NameDesHauptmoduls" ausführt.

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Auszug aus der man page zu python

-B Don't write .py[co] files on import. See also PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE.

-c command
Specify the command to execute (see next section). This terminates the
option list (following options are passed as arguments to the command).

-d Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards only, depending on compila‐
tion options).

-E Ignore environment variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that modify
the behavior of the interpreter.

-h , -? , --help
Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

-i When a script is passed as first argument or the -c option is used, enter
interactive mode after executing the script or the command. It does not
read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file. This can be useful to inspect global vari‐
ables or a stack trace when a script raises an exception.

-m module-name
Searches sys.path for the named module and runs the corresponding .py
file as a script.

-O Turn on basic optimizations. This changes the filename extension for
compiled (bytecode) files from .pyc to .pyo. Given twice, causes doc‐
-B Don't write .py[co] files on import. See also PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE.

-c command
Specify the command to execute (see next section). This terminates the
option list (following options are passed as arguments to the command).

-d Turn on parser debugging output (for wizards only, depending on compila‐
tion options).

-E Ignore environment variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that modify
the behavior of the interpreter.

-h , -? , --help
Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

-i When a script is passed as first argument or the -c option is used, enter
interactive mode after executing the script or the command. It does not read the $PYTHONSTARTUP file. This can be useful to inspect global vari‐ ables or a stack trace when a script raises an exception.

-m module-name
Searches sys.path for the named module and runs the corresponding .py
file as a script.

-O Turn on basic optimizations. This changes the filename extension for
compiled (bytecode) files from .pyc to .pyo. Given twice, causes doc‐
strings to be discarded.

-OO Discard docstrings in addition to the -O optimizations.

-R Turn on "hash randomization", so that the hash() values of str, bytes and
datetime objects are "salted" with an unpredictable pseudo-random value.
Although they remain constant within an individual Python process, they
are not predictable between repeated invocations of Python.
This is intended to provide protection against a denial of service caused by carefully-chosen inputs that exploit the worst case performance of a
dict construction, O(n^2) chttp://www.ocert.org/adviwww.ocert.org/advi
sories/ocert-2011-003.html for details.

-Q argument
Division control; see PEP 238. The argument must be one of "old" (the
default, int/int and long/long return an int or long), "new" (new divi‐
sion semantics, i.e. int/int and long/long returns a float), "warn" (old
division semantics with a warning for int/int and long/long), or "war‐
nall" (old division semantics with a warning for all use of the division
operator). For a use of "warnall", see the Tools/scripts/fixdiv.py
script.

-s Don't add user site directory to sys.path.

-S Disable the import of the module site and the site-dependent manipula‐
tions of sys.path that it entails.

-t Issue a warning when a source file mixes tabs and spaces for indentation
in a way that makes it depend on the worth of a tab expressed in spaces.
Issue an error when the option is given twice.

-u Force stdin, stdout and stderr to be totally unbuffered. On systems
where it matters, also put stdin, stdout and stderr in binary mode. Note
that there is internal buffering in xreadlines(), readlines() and file-
object iterators ("for line in systdin") which is not influenced by
this option. To work around this, you will want to use "sys.stdin.read‐
line()" inside a "while 1:" loop.

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Kommentar von LeonardM
04.03.2017, 19:15

from which it is loaded. When given twice, print a message for each file that is checked for when searching for a module. Also provides information on module cleanup at exit. -V , --version Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits. -W argument Warning control. Python sometimes prints warning message to sys.stderr. A typical warning message has the following form: file:line: category: message. By default, each warning is printed once for each source line where it occurs. This option controls how often warnings are printed. Multiple -W options may be given; when a warning matches more than one option, the action for the last matching option is performed. Invalid -W options are ignored (a warning message is printed about invalid options when the first warning is issued). Warnings can also be controlled from within a Python program using the warnings module. The simplest form of argument is one of the following action strings (or a unique abbreviation): ignore to ignore all warnings; default to explic‐ itly request the default behavior (printing each warning once per source line); all to print a warning each time it occurs (this may generate many messages if a warning is triggered repeatedly for the same source line, such as inside a loop); module to print each warning only the first time it occurs in each module; once to print each warning only the first time it occurs in the program; or error to raise an exception instead of printing a warning message. The full form of argument is action:message:category:module:line. Here, action is as explained above but only applies to messages that match the remaining fields. Empty fields match all values; trailing empty fields may be omitted. The message field matches the start of the warning mes‐ sage printed; this match is case-insensitive. The category field matches the warning category. This must be a class name; the match test whether the actual warning category of the message is a subclass of the specified warning category. The full class name must be given. The module field matches the (fully-qualified) module name; this match is case-sensitive. The line field matches the line number, where zero matches all line num‐

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Kommentar von LeonardM
04.03.2017, 19:17

das from whitch is loadet bezieht sich auf parameter v hier nochmal bis from which is loadet (falsch kopiert sry): -v Print a message each time a module is initialized, showing the place (filename or built-in module) from which it is loaded.

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