Muss ich in englischen analysen immer present benutzen. Auch wenn ich zb participle clauses benutze oder bsp. If clauses, die haben ja verschiedene zeiten?
nein, present wäre nur das Grundtempus, das du benützt, aber wenn du beispiele aus der Vergangenheit gibst oder Prognosen für die Zukunft machst, dann benützt die entsprechende Zeit...
Natürlich kannst du auch Participle Clauses und If-clauses benutzen.
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How to Ana lyse a Fictional Text
1. What is a fictional text?
Fictional texts differ from non-fictional ones in that they were not
primarily intended to convey information. Novels, short stories, plays,
and poems were written for artistic purposes in order to appeal to the
interested reader´s imagination.
2. How do you approach a fictional text (order may depend on the individual case)?
a. Read the text carefully at least twice.
b. Write down your first impressions of the text which can be a very
general idea, an important phrase, a characteristic feature of style, or
c. Look up unknown vocabulary. Concentrate only on key words that block the understanding of the text.
d. Reread the excerpt and underline important passages, esp. those relevant for the tasks in a test paper.
e. Structure your text according to sense units: How can the text be subdivided?
f. Ask yourself the following questions: What literary genre does the text in question belong to: poetry-drama-fiction?
g. What is the story about? What is its main theme? What is its
central idea / meaning / message? Can you state it in one single
h. What formal elements of the text bring about the central meaning best?
i. Start out with any of the characteristic formal elements which you
found relevant for the understanding of the excerpt and ana lyse it.
The main question is: How does the author use this formal element so
effectively that it can carry meaning and contribute to the overall
j. Analyse other formal elements of your choice and check whether
your findings are true with respect to your initial ideas (points b and
k. Perhaps you will have to reformulate your central meaning after
the ana lyses of various aspects of the text. If necessary, do so
because it will bring you closer to the author´s intention.
l. On your way through the whole process of interpretation, take the
following formal elements into account: action / plot; character,
setting, atmosphere, point of view, tone, structure, choice of words,
imagery and other stylistic devices
Remember that if a story is well-constructed, ana lyses of these
elements will ultimately lead you to the core of the text in question
because any element contributes a considerable bit to its overall
3. A few ideas on formal elements and what they stand for
Action: What actually happens in the story? Situation? Developments?
Plot: How is the action in the story organised?
Character: Who is the protagonist? How is he characterised? Other characters?
Setting: What is the place of the action presented? The time? The social circumstances?
Atmosphere: What feelings does the narrative convey to the reader
because of the description of setting, the choice of words, and the
Point of view: Who tells the story (an observer, the protagonist, …)?
From what perspective is the story told (first person narration, third
person narration, …)?
Tone: Is the story told in a serious, humorous, ironic, sentimental, or … way?
Structure: Are there different parts in the text? Any subdivisions?
How does the action start? What conveys the text coherence? Is there an
open ending / surprise ending?
Choice of words: What register does the author employ to tell his story?
Imagery: Does the author decorate his / her writing with comparisons, metaphors, symbols, personifications, …?
4. Additional questions
After a careful ana lysis of the text in question you might want to ask yourself a couple of very personal questions:
• Is the story convincing?
• Can I identify with any of the characters, their motives, their actions?
• Can I understand their reactions?
• Do I like the story or not? Can I give any reasons for my decision?
• Is the material presented realistic or unrealistic?
If you are given tasks in a term paper or a classroom test, make sure
that you stick to the rules of good and convincing writing in an essay.
Giving proof of your findings is also essential. In preparation you
should acquaint yourself with the techniques of quoting correctly from
the original text (see “How to quote …”). Keep enjoying reading and
writing about your ideas, and your teacher will enjoy reading your
© J. Menrath / 2003Useful phrases for ana_ysing texts
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PS: Das l in ana_yse wird leider nicht akzeptiert, deshalb der Unterstrich an dieser Stelle