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ere are the information about basketball

Basketball

is a handball team usually played by two teams of five players. The objective is to get the ball through a hoop mounted high up on a backboard at each end. It is a very popular sport worldwide, played with a round, orange ball that bounces. The game is played between men's teams or between women's teams. Basketball has been played in the Summer Olympic Games since 1936. The shot clock rule started in 1954.

History

In early December 1891, James Naismith, a Canadian physical education teacher at Springfield College in Springfield, Massachusetts invented an indoor game called basketball. He invented the sport to keep his students from becoming bored during the winter. Naismith wrote the basic rules and then nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot tall pole. Unlike modern basketball hoops, the bottom of the peach-basket was still there, so after a point was scored, somebody had to get the ball out of the basket with a long stick. Over time, people made a hole at the bottom of the basket so the ball could go through more easily. The score of the first game of basketball ever played was 1 - 0. There is a sculpture in Springfield, outside where the first game was held. The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is also in Springfield. Since the rules hadn't been formally written, there was no maximum number of players back then unlike today. This also meant that there was no set rules to the game; Naismith only observed and changed the rules accordingly.

Rules

The aim of basketball is to score more points than the other team, by shooting the ball in the basket. Baskets can be worth 1, 2, or 3 points. You get points by shooting the ball into the opponents' basket. The team with the most points at the end of the game wins.

Equipment

The court, where the game is played, is a rectangle shape, and at both end lines there is a goal called a "hoop" in the shape of a circle basket with the bottom cut out. In each game of basketball these things are required:

Basketball

Basketball court

Basketball hoop and backboard

Teams

Basketball
is played with two teams, with 5 players from each team on the court
at one time. The maximum number of players on the bench differs by
league. In international play, a maximum of 7 players are allowed on
the bench, resulting in a roster of 12 players. The NBA has 13-player
rosters; college and high school teams have 15-player rosters. When a
player wants to substitute for another player on the court they let
the score bench know. The referees will signal for the player waiting
to come into the court. The player that went into the game is now
playing and the player that was playing is sitting on the bench.

Playing Regulations

A game of basketball is made up of four quarters, each ten (or in the National Basketball Association 12,) minutes long. At the start of every game the referee throws the basketball up in the air, and one player from each team tries to hit it to their teammates, that is called a "jump ball." At the start of each quarter the team who has the possession arrow pointing towards their hoop gets the ball. Then the arrow is switched, and the next team gets the ball next quarter.After four quarters, the team who scores the most points wins. If the two teams score the same number of points, there is a five-minute "overtime" to see who can score more points. "Overtime" can be played over and over until one team finally scores more points. While playing the game, players on one team try to stop players on the other team from scoring. Each normal score is worth two points; however, if a player throws the ball into the hoop from behind the large arced line on the court, called the "3-point line," the score is worth three points. If you do something illegal in the game, it is called a "foul." If you foul someone on the other team while he is shooting the basketball, the player who was fouled gets to shoot "free throws" from the "foul line. A free throw is a shot that no one is allowed to try to block. Each successful free throw is worth one point. If you foul a player who is not shooting, the other team gets the ball, and can throw it in bounds from the sideline. Players can do three things with the ball: "dribble" (bounce) the ball, "pass" the ball to a teammate, or "shoot" the ball at the hoop. The player with the ball tries to keep the ball and not let the other team get it. Once a player commits five fouls, he is no longer allowed to play in the game, and a player on the bench must go in the game immediately. Are very simple!

Officials

In a game of basketball there are a number of people who are not from either team, that are there to help. They are called officials. Officials are very important because without them the game would not run as efficiently. Here is a list of some of these people:

Umpire There are either one
or two umpires in a game of basketball. It is the umpires' job to
make the game more fair by enforcing the rules of the game. The
umpires take into consideration the spirit and intent of the player
before making any call. In the NBA and WNBA, the term "umpire"
is not used; the person who has this role is called the referee.

Referee The use of this
word varies between rule sets.

Under the rules of FIBA (the

worldwide governing body for the sport), the NCAA (U.S. college
basketball), and NFHS (U.S. high schools), there is one referee in
a game of basketball. He is the "head" umpire. The
referee has all the jobs of the umpires along with a couple more
responsibilities. He is also the one that makes the final decision
for most problems and is the one who throws the ball up for the tip
off the start of the match.

The first ever recorded female
referee is Isabelle Johnson from Melbourne.

The first ever recorded male
referee is Campbell Grech from Melbourne.

Time Keeper There is one
timekeeper whose job is to keep track of the time and to tell the
umpires when time for each quarter has run out. He is also in
control of adding the scores onto the scoreboard.

Scorekeeper There is one
scorekeeper whose job is to keep track of and record all points
scored, shots attempted, fouls made and timeouts called.

Assistant Scorekeeper There
is one assistant scorekeeper in a game of basketball. his job is to
assist the scorekeeper, by telling him the players who score points,
and to hold up a number for each foul called, showing everyone the
number of fouls the specified player has for the game.

Shot Clock Operator There is one shot clock operator
and his job is to keep resetting and holding the device when needed
or told to by an umpire. This person needs to have good reflexes and
quickness, as he has to quickly reset the timer when the game
resumes.

It should also be noted that fans and media in North America will
often use "referee" to describe all on-court officials,
whether their formal titles are "referee", "umpire",
or "crew chief".

Basketball terms

There are some basketball terms which players have
to understand when playing the game. Here are some terms:

Draft pick is an eligible
player selected to play for one of thirty teams in the NBA

Free throw is a basketball
throw from the free-throw line from either personal, technical,
unsportsmanlike
or disqualifying fouls. Each free-throw made is worth one point. The
amount of free-throws attempted are determined by the following:

missed field goal and a drawn
foul will result in 2 free throws

made field goal and a drawn foul
will result in 1 free throw

missed 3-point attempt and a
drawn foul will result in 3 free throws

made 3-point attempt and a drawn
foul will result in 1 free throw

unsportsmanlike foul will result
in 2 free throws and the same team's possession. (In all North
American rule sets, this foul is called a "flagrant foul",
with the same penalty.)

technical foul will result in 2
free throws and the same team's possession. (In the NBA and WNBA,
technical fouls result in 1 free throw instead of 2.)

Field goal is any made shot
in normal play. Field goals are worth 2 points, unless the shooter
was outside the three-point line, in which case it is worth 3
points.

Personal foul is any
contact, committed by a player of the other team, thought, by the
umpires, to have caused a disadvantage.

Technical foul is a
violation of certain basketball rules. They include:

fighting or threatening to fight

with another person

entering the basketball court

when it is not a substitution time

a player being out of bounds

(away from the court) to gain an advantage

having too many players play on

the court

refusing to sit on the bench

returning to play when a player

is disqualified (loses his privileges to play)

yelling and/or swearing at

another player or an official

Rebound is the act of
catching the basketball after a shot has been attempted, but missed.

Assist is to pass a
teammate the ball, which then the teammate immediately shoots into
the basketball ring successfully. 2-3 dribbles are allowed after
catching the ball for assist to be counted.

Steal is to take the ball
away from a person who is dribbling, shooting or passing without
physically touching the person (committing a foul).

Turnover is when the team
that controls the ball loses control and the other team gains
control.

Walkover is the automatic
victory of a team if the opposing team withdraws, is disqualified or
there is not any competition at all.

Substitution is the act of
replacing a player from the court to an another player sitting on
the bench.

Double dribble is when a
player dribbles the ball and picks it up and then dribbles it again
without having shot or passed it. Dribbling the ball with two hands
is also a double dribble. If a player double dribbles, the ball is
automatically given to the other team.

Carry is when a player
physically turns the ball over with their hands whilst dribbling it.

Travel is when a player in
possession of the ball moves both feet without dribbling the ball.
If a player travels, the ball is automatically given to the opposing
team.

Shot clock is a clock
designed to limit the time a team has to shoot a basketball. The
shot clock is different in different leagues, but it is usually
between 24 seconds and 35 seconds. After time runs out, the ball is
automatically given to the opposing team unless they shot, before
the clock runs out, and hit the rim or the ball enters the basket.

Substitute (subs) is when a
player on the bench swaps for a player on the court. The player on
the bench is allowed to play and the player sits on the bench.

Jump ball happens at the
start of every game. This is where the ball gets thrown up from the
centre circle and one person from each team jumps for it, aiming to
hit it to one of his team mates.

Alternating possession At
the start of the game there is a jump ball. Whichever team "wins"
the jump ball gets the arrow pointed towards their goal. Each time
the rules mention it the ball gets given to the team who is trying
to score in the direction of the arrow and the arrow gets turned.

Clutch is a shot made at a
difficult moment in the game, usually when the shot clock is about
to run out or the team, losing by 1 or 2 points, suddenly wins the
game, because of the clutch shot.

Backcourt violation is when
a player crosses the half-court line and walks backwards over the
line while in possession of the ball, or passes to another player
who is behind the half-court line. Note that this rule does not
apply if a defensive player taps the ball, and it goes beyond the
half-court line, and the offensive player retrieves it in the
"backcourt".

3-second violation is when
a player stands in the lane (an area marked by the big square in
front of the basket) for more than 3 seconds. The offensive team
that commits a 3-second violation will lose the possession of the
ball. The defensive team that commits a 3-second violation will
receive a technical foul.

8- or 10-second violation is when the team with the
ball fails to advance the ball past the center line within the
allowed time. The offensive team will lose possession. The allowed
time is 8 seconds in international play, the NBA, and WNBA, and 10
seconds in college and high school play for both males and females.
Women's college basketball was the last level of basketball to add
this violation, only doing so for the 2013–14 season.

Positions in basketball

In professional basketball teams, each player has a position. A position is a job or role that a player has to take part in to play the game. If everyone is doing their job correctly, the team is usually successful.

Point guard (PG) (1) -
point guards are responsible for leading the team on offense. They
have to take the ball out (to dribble the ball halfway across their
team's court side into the opposing team's court side) and plan an
"attack" or "play" - to pass the ball to a
player and he passes on to another player and so on till a player
shoots the basketball. Point guards can be small, but they have to
be very fast and possess good ball-handling. But the most important
thing for the PG is a wide view. PG should control the game when on
offense. That's why PG is called 'the coach on the court'.

Shooting guard (SG) (2) -
shooting guards generally are a little bit taller and slower than
point guards. They have to make good shots from far distances (like
three-point lines).

Small forward (SF) (3) -
small forwards are generally taller than both point guards and
shooting guards. They are the team's most versatile player, doing
everything from rebounding and assisting to scoring.

Power forward (PF) (4) -
power forwards are usually one of the strongest players who play
inside the 3 point line. Their job is to receive rebounds from under
the basket and score in the opposing team's basket, although it is
unusual for a power forward to score most points for the team.

Center (C) (5) - Centers will usually be the tallest
player on the team. They score close to the basket, rebound and
block shots on the defensive end. They also start the game in the
tip off.

Other positions, more usual in professional basketball teams, are used in basketball.

Swingman - a basketball
player who can play both small forward and shooting guard positions.

Stretch four (also
cornerman) - a basketball player who can play both power
forward and small forward positions. The term "stretch four"
comes from the concept of a power forward ("four") capable
of "stretching" a defense with outside shooting ability.

Point forward - a
basketball player who can play both point guard and forward (either
small forward or power forward) positions.

Forward-center

- a basketball player who can play both

forward (usually power forward) and center positions.

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Kommentar von earnest
06.12.2016, 21:51

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